Here's an interesting study done on body and antler size of blacktail deer in California. As for body size, there appeared to be a connection in male body size to the density of the female population in the area not only when the male is young but when he was in gestation. And it appears that the effect not only follows a male through his lifetime, but can also affect future generations. They also showed they could increase male body size by aggressively harvesting does.
If this effect carries through other species in other areas, specifically in Alaska, it could have implications when it comes to "abundance" management. There are a lot of inter-related factors that need to be considered.