I highly recommend the above article and think it indeed makes for a good starting point for discussion on what the overall effects may be of intensive management when we bring predators like wolves to very low numbers over large areas.
Certainly as John says, wolf management under an IM plan has done wonders for the moose population in Unit 13, but what about all these other somewhat subtle effects he mentions to other species and the negatives like an increasing coyote population?
I hope the article and excerpt below will stimulate some good discussion. The idea of a pulse management that operates between the extremes of very high ungulates and very low predators or vice-versa is intriguing.
"There is no magic number or formula for predator/prey ratios. Intensive Management protocol, as now structured, will continue until moose population and harvest objectives are obtained, or the wolf population in Unit 13 is at an all-time low (the number is 135).
There are no easy answers, and indeed, there may be no definitive solution. But, those of us who utilize game resources and are interested in their management need to get involved and initiate discussions. Perhaps a starting point is some type of "pulse management." Could wolf control could be implemented in an on-and-off pattern to trigger at the midpoints of the population range instead of at the extremes? "